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It is very important that when you use ideas from another writer or quote another person’s work in your essay or assignment that you acknowledge this. This means that you have to say where the idea or information came from.

If you do not acknowledge other people’s work you are plagiarising or stealing their work which is considered a very serious offense.

It is also important that you show where you found your information as others must be able to find the same sources of information that you did.

The style of referencing that we want all students to use at Howick College is called APA or Harvard Style.

This style requires you to cite sources in the text of your essay/assignment. The author and date of publication are given immediately after the reference or quotation with a detailed Reference List arranged alphabetically at the end of the work.

Definitions of terms used according to APA referencing style:

Quote: Repeat a passage from a text or speech

Cite: Name the origin of the quote

Bibliography: List of Literature used as background reading or for background or further reading

Reference List: Literature that you have quoted or cited in your work.

Follow the style guide given below for citing references in the body of your work and for compiling your Reference List and/or Bibliography.

How to Cite Your References

Immediately after you have referred to or quoted another person’s work you enclose in brackets the author’s name and the date the book or article was published e.g. (Wrightson, 1982) You also do this when you have referred to maps, diagrams, photographs etc. e.g. See Fig 1. (Wrightson, 1982) If the work you are referring to has no author, cite the title and date of publication e.g. (Uses of books, 1997)

Direct quotations (of less than 40 words) should be incorporated into the text, within double quotation marks and the page number should also be stated, e.g. The occupation of new lands often led to new vocabulary development. “The new settlers in America obviously had to come up with new words to describe their New World” (Bryson, 1990, p.154)

Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be presented as a separate paragraph, (indented or blocked) and not enclosed in double speech marks e.g

The new settlers in America obviously had to come up with new words to describe their New World and this necessity naturally increased as they moved inland.

Partly this was achieved by borrowing from others who inhabited or explored the untamed continent. (Bryson, 1990, p154)

Reference List

This is a full list of your sources, which appears at the end of your work. It is organised in alphabetical order. (Some subjects may require you to organise resources according to their type) Follow the format listed below for each type of information source. Please note the following:

· Underline the name of a book, CD ROM, Newspaper or Magazine if handwriting your assignment. Put it in italics if word processing.

· Capitalise only the first word of the title and the first word of any sub-title and any proper nouns

· Place of publication is town/city, not country.

· The publishers name is given in its simplest form, e.g. Bushman, not Bushman Press Ltd. etc.

Reference List Formats for different types of Information Sources


Author(s) or Editor’s name(s). (Year of publication) Book title City of Publication: Publisher

e.g. Britt, D. (Ed.) (1989) Modern art: Impressionism to Post-Modernism London:


King, M. (1989) Moriori - A people rediscovered Auckland: Viking

Vare, E.A. & Ptacek, G. (1987) Mothers of invention: From the bra to the bomb: Forgotten women and their unforgettable ideas. New York: William Morrow

Books - Where no author is given:

Title of book (Year of publication) City of Publication: Publisher

e.g. New Zealand official yearbook (1997) Wellington: GP Publications

From a Magazine/Journal or Newspaper article where you know the author:

Name of the writer (Date of Publication) Title of the Article Name of the Magazine or

Newspaper, Volume, (if applicable) page numbers

e.g. Beerian, D.A. (1993) In search of the typical eyewitness American Psychologist,

Vol 48, pp. 574-578

Revington, M. (September 27, 1997) Watership Showdown New Zealand Listener, pp.4-5

From a Magazine/Journal or Newspaper article with unknown author:

‘Title of the article’ (Date of Publication) Name of Magazine or Newspaper, Volume, (if applicable) page numbers

e.g. ‘Island of trouble’ (March 12, 1988) The Economist, Vol.306, pp.53-54

From a TV Programme (Watch the credits at the end)

Name of the Producer (Date of Production) Title [Television Series] Place of Production TV CHANNEL

e.g. Learning Media (1983) Winners and losers: Blues for Miss Laverty [Television Series] Wellington: TV ONE

NZ on Air (1997) Inside NZ: Transplants [Television Series] Wellington: TV 3

From the World Wide Web:

Author’s Name (Date) Title Date of Retrieval from Website Address

e.g. Distefano, V (1996) Guidelines for better Writing Retrieved Jun 28, 1998, from

Stewart, J. (2005) Writing Tips archives Retrieved June 28, 2005 from

Please Note: Because personal communications, letters, memos, phone conversations, interviews and e-mail do not provide data that other people can access, they are not included in the Reference List and/or Bibliography. They are cited only in the text of your work.

e.g. ….the dangers of smoking were clearly outlined (Cooper, J.B. personal communicaton September 12, 1998)

…alcohol affected her judgement (Jane Smith, Interview, 1st April, 1997)

Information is available from many different sources and some are not covered

here. If you are unsure how to cite or list references that you have made,

check with your subject teacher or Library staff.